AskDefine | Define bioassay

Dictionary Definition

bioassay n : appraisal of the biological activity of a substance by testing its effect on an organism and comparing the result with some agreed standard v : subject to a bio-assay

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Pronunciation

Noun

  1. the analysis of the biological activity of a substance, with reference to a standard preparation, using a culture of living cells, or a living creature

Extensive Definition

Bioassay is a shorthand commonly used term for biological assay and is a type of scientific experiment.
Bioassays are typically conducted to measure the effects of a substance on a living organism. Bioassays may be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative bioassays are used for assessing the physical effects of a substance that may not be quantified, such as abnormal development or deformity. Quantitative bioassays involve estimation of the concentration or potency of a substance by measurement of the biological response that it produces. Quantitative bioassays are typically analyzed using the methods of biostatistics. Bioassays are essential in the development of new drugs, and monitoring pollutants in the environment. Environmental bioassays are generally a broad-range survey of toxicity, and a toxicity identification evaluation is conducted to determine what the relevant toxicants are.
The use of bioassays include:
  1. measurement of the pharmacological activity of new or chemically undefined substances
  2. investigation of the function of endogenous mediators
  3. determination of the side-effect profile, including the degree of drug toxicity
  4. measurement of the concentration of known substances (alternatives to the use of whole animals have made this use obsolete)
  5. Assessing the amount of pollutants being released by a particular source, such as wastewater or urban runoff.
bioassay in Japanese: バイオアッセイ
bioassay in French: Essai biologique
bioassay in Russian: Биотестирование
bioassay in Finnish: Biotesti
bioassay in Chinese: 生物檢定法
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